parasites in humans

Modern medicine increasingly leans towards the parasitic theory of disease and proves that if live parasites in the human body, there is regularity in the development of various types of violations. There are over 300 known organisms, leading a parasitic way of life on the surface of the skin and the inside. All types of parasites have different life cycles, mechanisms of parasitism, but one thing unites them — parasitic diseases cause great harm to humans.

Classification of types of parasites in the human body

There is a division between true and false parasitism. Cases when a pest to the human parasites not true, harmful if accidentally ingested, refer to about. Examples are insects and leeches in the nasopharynx or ear passages. Due to the risk of extensive damage, blockage of the airway emergency / remove programs. Treatment of true parasitism mainly drug depends on the type of pest.

Parasites that live on the body surface and outer bodies

Organisms that are parasitic on the skin surface lice, mites, bedbugs, certain types of flies, mosquitoes. To cause harm to humans by bites, form in the skin of the colony, causing skin lesions. Parasites are a serious threat to humans as carriers of infections and viruses, such as encephalitis, malaria, typhoid, plague, anthrax.

The simplest

This small parasite in humans, which consists of a single cell and are parasitic in various organs and tissues causing severe illness, often chronic. The most well-known are amoeba, Giardia, Toxoplasma. Pathways of the parasites are diverse, mainly through food and water. Some types cause lethal diseases, for example, a certain type of amoeba being in the water and which causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis.


In the group of helminth species parasitic worms that live in the internal organs of living organisms. They are quite large, which live in the body, parasites can cause significant damage tissues and organs, and if untreated, even cause death.

There are such types of parasites in the body:

  • Roundworms, nematodes, are from 1-2 mm (Trichinella) to several tens of centimeters (roundworm). Some species, such as Ancylostoma, penetrate the skin.
  • Flukes, flat worms, which is popularly called "flukes" because the suction cups on the body. Infection occurs by ingestion of infective forms of the parasite that develops in the organism an intermediate host or in the water.
  • The largest helminths, cestodes, better known name — tapeworms or apni. There are more than 10-15 m (beef tapeworm), and the largest representative, tapeworm wide, reaches more than 20 m. the Intermediate host and source of infection are usually farm animals.

Localization, where they live as parasites

There are several forms of localization. The temporal localization refers to the stay of the parasite in the body in the period of a cycle of development. The stationary form, if the parasites in the body live its entire life cycle, laying eggs in the human body and do not require for their maturation intermediate host. Transit form of localization is the period of migration of the parasite to the place of residence.

For diagnosis and treatment is important to consider both the shape and localization. The location is divided into 2 main groups. The first group are parasitic on the skin of organisms. Parasites inside the human body which affect the internal organs, the species that can live on the bones, tissues and fluids constitute a group of endoparasites, it includes protozoa and helminths.

Parasites in and on human skin

Internal human parasites are divided into 2 types — the parasites of the tissues and parasites and abdominal organs associated with the external environment. There are atypical forms of infection, when parasites are introduced uncharacteristic for their species, place of residence, which complicates diagnosis and treatment, especially in lesions of the brain.

Parasites that live on the body surface and outer bodies have two main ways of parasitism, temporary and permanent. Pests that live on the skin of living beings, which are fed through the bite are temporary and dangerous infection. Parasites that live on human skin, affect the integrity of the epithelium, causing dermatological diseases.

The most encountered types of

To common parasite that lives on the skin, are the causative agent of scabies — the itch mite, lice that cause pediculosis, and cutaneous tick — pathogen demodicosis. In spring and autumn are the ixodid ticks that live in field and woodland. With the simplest most common types of parasites in man, as Giardia, Toxoplasma, Trichomonas, amoeba, Plasmodium. Common worms belongs bovine and porcine tapeworm and the largest — a tapeworm. Among the nematode is often diagnosed roundworm, pinworm, Trichinella, vlasoglavy. Trematodes of the more common liver Fluke and giant.

Common symptoms of infestation

If parasite eggs or adults of the parasitic organisms get into the human body, there comes the incubation period, during which parasitic infection may be asymptomatic. Signs of visible ectoparasites from the skin of allergic rashes, wounds, itching. To identify endoparasites harder, parasitic diseases often have symptoms similar to other diseases. The primary symptoms are caused by the action of toxins is often perceived as the result of overwork and ignored.

Signal for diagnosis is the emergence of such symptoms:

  • allergic reaction to waste products of parasites;
  • anemia;
  • headaches;
  • causeless sleep disorders;
  • dyspepsia;
  • frequent nausea, pain in the abdomen;
  • the disruption of the digestive tract;
  • the increase in body temperature;
  • pain in the liver or increase the body;
  • frequent causeless pain in joints, muscles;
  • any long-term ailments, not related to the other to diagnose diseases.


To detect ectoparasites in the skin is possible by visual inspection and microscopic analysis of the tissue. To complicate diagnosis can severe allergic reactions and secondary infections that look like skin diseases that do not have a parasitic origin.

Time to find the presence of endoparasites is much more difficult, the list of parasites in the human body exceeds hundreds of species requires a comprehensive diagnosis, which consists of several tests and procedures:

  • General analysis of blood;
  • immunoassay blood test;
  • examination of the stool;
  • CT and ultrasound, allows you to quickly detect large species;
  • analysis of duodenal contents;
  • a study of the secretion of the duodenum 12.

Drugs and treatment

Treatment of parasitic diseases must be integrated, designated doctor on the basis of laboratory analysis and the individual patient. This is due to the high toxicity of medication, need for regular monitoring of the patient. Self-treatment can have negative consequences, lead to life-threatening complications. If the parasites in man are localized not typically identify risks and treatments without specialist impossible.

Therapeutic measures are divided into three stages. The training phase is required to remove toxins from the body, relieving acute symptoms and to protect the internal organs from the harmful effects of medicines. For these purposes, prescribed medications, special medications to cleanse the body, antibiotics, diet.

The second stage is the destruction of parasites, is started when the patient's condition is stable. Large worms, such as the beef tapeworm and the major pests in the internal tissues are often removed surgically. The duration of the medical course affects the life cycle of individuals, the extent of the lesions.

The third stage aims to restore the body and prevent re-infection. In cases of mild infestation is quite simple health treatments. Parasitic diseases of man may require long treatment and recovery, cessation of medication during the treatment delays the healing process.

Preventive measures

At the heart of prevention lies in personal hygiene, handling of food and clean drinking water, observance of sanitary norms during cooking of meat and fish. Caution should be exercised when swimming in fresh water, where the parasite a huge number of dangerous pests. Protection against ectoparasites is the use of quality insect repellents to avoid contact with infected people and objects.

The most dangerous are considered to be pests that are found in the tropics and hot countries when planning a trip to such places, should be carefully protect from insects. All the parasites that live in our bodies, pose a threat to health and the implementation of preventative measures to prevent serious parasitic infections.